Mammalian or mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) senses nutrient, energy, and hormone signals to regulate metabolism and energy homeostasis. mTOR activity in the hypothalamus, which is associated with changes in energy status, plays a critical role in the regulation of food intake and body weight. mTOR integrates signals from a variety of "energy balancing" hormones such as leptin, insulin, and ghrelin, although its action varies in response to these distinct hormonal stimuli as well as across different neuronal populations. In this review, we summarize and highlight recent findings regarding the functional roles of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) in the hypothalamus specifically in its regulation of body weight, energy expenditure and glucose/lipid homeostasis. Understanding the role and underlying mechanisms behind mTOR-related signaling in the brain will undoubtedly pave new avenues for future therapeutics and interventions that can combat obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes.
- energy homeostasis
- Copyright © 2016, American Journal of Physiology - Endocrinology and Metabolism