Uncarboxylated osteocalcin (GluOC), a bone-derived hormone, regulates energy metabolism by stimulating insulin secretion, pancreatic β-cell proliferation, and adiponectin expression in adipocytes. Previously, we showed that long-term intermittent or daily oral administration of GluOC reduced the fasting blood glucose level, improved glucose tolerance, and increased the fasting serum insulin concentration as well as pancreatic β-cell area in female mice fed a normal or high-fat, high-sucrose diet. We have now performed similar experiments with male mice and found that such GluOC administration induced glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, and adipocyte hypertrophy in those fed a high-fat, high-sucrose diet. In addition, GluOC increased the circulating concentration of testosterone and reduced that of adiponectin in such mice. These phenotypes were not observed in male mice fed a high-fat, high-sucrose diet after orchidectomy, but they were apparent in orchidectomized male mice or intact female mice that were fed such a diet and subjected to continuous testosterone supplementation. Our results thus reveal a sex difference in the effects of GluOC on glucose homeostasis. Given that oral administration of GluOC has been considered a potentially safe and convenient option for the treatment or prevention of metabolic disorders, this sex difference will need to be taken into account in further investigations.
- insulin resistance
- sex difference
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