Endocrinology and Metabolism

1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 contributes to regulating mammary calcium transport and modulates neonatal skeletal growth and turnover cooperatively with calcium

Ji Ji, Ruinan Lu, Xiaojie Zhou, Yingben Xue, Chunmin Shi, David Goltzman, Dengshun Miao

Abstract

To assess the interaction of 1,25(OH)2D3 and dietary calcium on mammary calcium transport in lactating dams and skeletal growth and turnover in the neonate, female lactating 1α(OH)ase+/− or 1α(OH)ase−/− mice were fed either a high-calcium diet containing 1.5% calcium in the drinking water or a “rescue diet.” Dietary effects on the expression of molecules mediating mammary calcium transport were determined in the dams, and the effects of milk calcium content were assessed on skeletal growth and turnover in 2-wk-old 1,25(OH)2D3-deficient pups. Results showed that the reduction of milk calcium levels in the 1α(OH)ase−/− dams and the elevation of milk calcium levels in dams fed the rescue diet were associated with the down- or upregulation of calbindin D9k and plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPase isoform 2b expression, respectively, in mammary epithelial cells. The action of ambient calcium in stimulating skeletal growth in the neonates appeared to supercede the direct action of 1,25(OH)2D3, and the response of chondrocytes in the neonates to elevated calcium was more sensitive in hypocalcemic animals. Osteopenia was more apparent in pups nursed by dams with lower milk calcium than in 1,25(OH)2D3-deficient pups nursed by dams with higher milk calcium. Bone formation parameters were increased significantly in all pups fed by dams on the rescue diet but were still lower in 1α(OH)ase−/− pups than in 1α(OH)ase+/− pups. Consequently, there is an important contributory role of calcium in conjunction with 1,25(OH)2D3 to mammary calcium transport in lactating dams and skeletal growth and turnover in the neonate.

  • vitamin D
  • dietary calcium
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